America’s Prophecy… the End

In the night’s quiet, I arrived home from work. It was peaceful and calm, but in my subconscious mind, a volcano of thought was about to spew onto paper. Under a cloudless sky of endless frustration, my imagination exploded with a horrific thought. Our political arena comes to my mind, but before I let logic equate the scenario, I must refer to the place all things begin – the BIBLE. Allow me to share the first thing my eyes set on…

[During the first four trumpets, each nation will be forced to suspend its constitution so that martial law can be enacted. Given the size and scope of God’s wrath, world leaders will do whatever it takes to maintain control. Food and water supplies will be rationed. Medical care and energy reserves will be scarce. Hunger and thirst will drive millions of dazed and bewildered people crazy. Extreme situations require desperate solutions. Earth’s population has never seen a global crisis like the first four trumpets. The crisis will be so huge that political leaders in every nation will be set free of their constitutional obligations almost immediately. This freedom will permit them to enact and enforce laws they would have strongly opposed during normal times. The declaration of martial law will make it very easy for lawmakers to comply with the demands of Babylon’s clergy. Given the fact that something must be done to appease God, very few citizens will complain – at first.]

READ THE COMPLETE ARTICLE HERE: https://www.danielrevelationbiblestudies.com/Martial_Law.htm

Yes, my friends in Christ, martial law is written in scriptures! I highly encourage you to read the full article by following the link. It is profound to know America is in prophecy. My faith is in God as I now see the direction this nation is headed soon. I look no further than the borders of my yard for a source of peace for God gives me the strength to do all things through faith.

God blesses me with messages to relay to my followers, and many calls me eccentric or bazaar. As Jesus spoke, His messengers will be mocked and doubted, and I accept the role. However, this blog is not my prediction but straight out of the Bible, in the Book of Daniel.

I often speak, in quiet corners, about martial law in America. Today they soften those harsh words to “State of Emergency” situations. They are unpredictable and maybe scary but revealed in the Books of Daniel and Revelation. I will not attempt to interject my thoughts into this article for you will read it and draw your conclusions.

As we watch events unfold in the United States and the Middle East, the balance of power falls into the grip of the most powerful nations. The correlation between prophecy and scripture is uncanny. Our open borders, lawlessness, and sovereign territory are now infiltrated by self-servant beliefs, religions, and cults. They brainwash even our children, as prophesied, to believe other forms of capitalism is healthier than our longstanding democracy. The book, Lord of the Flies, comes to mind. No one can govern themselves without disastrous consequences!

In a pun, I say the word Bible stands for “Basic Instructions Before Leaving Earth.” The truth is, it is written by philosophers and astrologers who predicted, two thousand years ago, the events we face now and in the near future. But, the prophet, Daniel, saw the vision of martial law, or loss of our liberty. How profound!

Daniel the Prophet

So, what would Jesus say to us today about America’s circumstances? I believe He would say though we can’t change the evilness of the world, but we can allow God to change us. Thoughts run deep, and I’m unable to put my writing tablet down long enough to pour another cup of coffee. How many of our friends and family members will live through martial law? How many will place God in their heart and soul for eternal salvation? Does it scare you many of us will never see our loved ones again?

My heart tremors for God is coming to rule… no doubt, it’s the beginning of the end.

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Weren’t We Warned?

Today is the day to exploit my messages from God. I think it is important to summarize and discuss the last three week’s blogs – The Stars Are Lining Up, The Ides of Suspicion, and What If Christ Came to Rule the White House. Every single person, most of all Americans, need to understand these words because readers may have missed the point. My thoughts are strong on the severe condition of this world and the End Times nearing, so I must expand upon my words of hope and faith. 

DEMOCRACY

It doesn’t take a scholar to read the Book of Revelations and comprehend the forecasts within it are Bible predictions. History does and will repeat itself again. I began this mini-series with the Ides of Suspicion because Julius Caesar laid the groundwork for the first-ever democratic nation. He thought it was the only fair way to protect the middle and lower-class people. A coup of his envious and stubborn Roman senators, however, killed him. Their belief was a dictatorship could financially harm them and give Caesar too much power over the Roman empire. Why is Caesar’s death important to the United States? Our country, also was established on democracy. We have the freedom to elect our own President and practice social equality. But, today, we are witnessing a shift of events, repeating history. Our government and its citizens are in conflict. Senators are stubborn and deeply rooted in ungodly practices. Many Americans turn their back on the Declaration of Independence, religion, and the symbols which formed this great nation. It is a sure sign America will not be long before it implodes for this country was based on Christianity – not atheism or agnosticism. A civil war, just as the Roman empire suffered after Caesar’s death, cannot be denied as a future event by US citizens.

BIBLE PROPHECIES

My blog, The Stars Are Lining Up, addresses bible prophecies being fulfilled before our very eyes. The breaking of the seven seals (Revelations 6-8) possibly marks our beginning era of the Great Tribulation. Countries, including the US, are seeing a significant increase in war, natural disasters, economic troubles, starvation, and genocide. The Laws of God are severely broken, and it marks the beginning of the end for mankind. As I mentioned earlier, history repeats itself through the Bible. Our Lord is merciful and loving but is also vengeful and fierce when we do not live and abide in His word. Do you remember the story of the Canaanites in the Old Testament? God ordered the Israelites to “save alive nothing that breathes” in Canaan because of their filthy life. They worshipped other gods and practiced sexual inappropriateness; they sacrificed children and boasted of their evil practices. God obliterated a whole nation for their failure to heed His words. As we study this story, one must ask, could God be sending us an angry message today? Forest fires are wiping out entire towns, earthquakes are causing mass destruction, and tidal waves and record-breaking rainfalls are obliterating whole towns. How many more signs of His fury can we see around us?

 WHAT ABOUT THE UNITED STATES?

Let’s visit the most powerful nation on earth and founded on Christian morals and the Bible. I’m sure many do not believe this to be true, but again, Satan works wonders in a foolish mind. I wrote the blog, What If Christ Came to Rule the White House because it is time for US citizens to realize their life, as they know it, is walking a fine line. Our government is in turmoil, just as the days of Julius Caesar. Laws pass approving abortion, talks of socialism is an everyday discussion, and our highest officials practice shady dealings. US citizens lack respect for the leader of our country, dwelling only on past indiscretions. Even the voting system is faulty. All countries have corruption, but our founding fathers built the United States to be a leader of the world. Today, it hopelessly flounders in front of our future generations because of greed, lack of belief in God, and poor morals. What does it take for people to see without God, there is no existence?

While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage. 2 Peter 2:19

The Roman Empire was once the greatest and most influential nation in the world. Its demise was the corruption because man was not created to rule himself; only by the word of God. History, once again, is staring down the neck of the United States. Our country, the most powerful and barbaric on earth, is about to have a close encounter with God, our Maker. Lucifer has lounged here for thousands of years, in the lap of luxury, but not much longer.

CONCLUSIONS

Once upon a time, God placed His only son, Jesus Christ, on earth to teach the truth of His kingdom and to save lost mankind. But, in this cruel world, even Jesus was a hunted man. When Augustus Caesar took over Rome, he knew a Savior was coming, and he elected the Three Wisemen to go find this great Messiah. He even placed a tax levy to force the pregnant mother, Mary, to come forward. But, God intervened and redirected Joseph to take Mary, and the baby Jesus, to the only country which Rome did not rule – Egypt. The lesson to learn is God always protects the innocent from harm. He is the great Overseer of our nations, governments, and life; His son, Jesus, was crucified to save our sins.

For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. (John 3:17)

So, as God sees His beloved people failing to flourish, once again, He will gather His army into battle for one last time. Christians, this is a war we can win with faith and prayer! As God takes His fury out on the corrupt nations of this world, He promises to protect His anointed children – it requires the belief in Him. Live by the Laws of God and turn away from evil. Fight for God’s word because even in the face of death, we will be winners.

As for those who are not believers, Christians will pray for your salvation because – weren’t we warned?

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What If Christ Came to Rule the White House?

The Bible references Christ’s return to earth, and there’s little doubt it won’t happen soon. God will conquer Satan and his sin-filled world right at his own doorstep. The Great Tribulation will expose the Antichrist, led by Satan, who will form armies to slaughter the Jews in Jerusalem. Jesus and His saints will descend from heaven to conquer the world’s evil. (Rev 19: 11-16) We should all be familiar with the story.

But, what about Christians who swore their allegiance to a country not conceived in Christ’s time? When the Rapture occurs, it isn’t just the Mediterranean nations of the Bible any more, but another half of the world too. Scholars wrote the Book of Revelations two thousand years ago. I’m sure they didn’t have a clue the United States laid on the bottom side of their flat-world map… or did they? You must remember these intellectuals were certain the dimensions of Satan’s hell was under their world! They probably weren’t too far off their coordinates.

Let’s discuss this – what if Christ came to rule the White House? He certainly would be at home fighting Satan on his own turf. But, today, hundreds of repertoires exists relating to His presence here a long time ago. For example, before Christopher Columbus passed, he wrote “The Book of Prophecies.” It contained biblical revelations considered medieval notions, but in fact, it solidifies most of today’s world events. Columbus, along with missionaries, were the first people to promote the spread of Christianity throughout the New World. He brought God to our land.

In the 1600s, the Protestant Reformation started the division of Protestants from the Roman Catholic Church. The newly formed Protestants came to the US, with bibles in tow, and handed them out to ordinary people. It would unite this country. (Pocahontas was their first convert. She was baptized to marry John Rolfe.) However, an interesting fact is the Catholics also broke away from the Roman Catholic Church about the same time, and they headed to South America. But, do you know what they didn’t carry with them? Bibles! Unlike North America, this nation wasn’t built to be united under God, and the evidence stands before us today.

The first United States Chief Justice John Jay wrote a letter in 1816 to Rep. John Murray stating:

“It certainly is very desirable that a pacific disposition should prevail among all nations. The most effectual way of producing it is by extending the prevalence and influence of the gospel. Real Christians will abstain from violating the rights of others, and therefore will not provoke war. Almost all nations have peace or war at the will and pleasure of rulers whom they do not elect, and who are not always wise or virtuous. Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.”

Now it is two hundred years later, and you must ask yourself, what in the world did he know that we don’t? The Bible and Christianity were and still remains the main staple of our nation’s roots. If you think not, explain the plaque hanging on the state dining room fireplace in the White House reading:

“I pray Heaven to Bestow the Best of Blessings on THIS HOUSE and on All that shall hereafter Inhabit it. May none but Honest and Wise Men ever rule under this Roof.”

It was written by President John Adams. What blasphemy and a mockery American citizens became to the White House! The US deviates from every Law of God while they form cults, atheism, and corruption; both amongst its citizens and the government. It is interesting, though, how history repeats itself. Rome, 45 B.C., and Julius Caesar became a dictator known as the Father of his Country. He introduced the basics of democracy to his land by reforming the Senate and local government. His increasing power amongst Rome’s lower- and middle-class people made him very popular, but upheaval from angry politicians was his ultimate demise and the end of the Roman Republic. Rome’s implosion resulted from envy, angst, and hatred of authoritarian rule from the Senators who ran the country. Doesn’t this sound familiar? This is the same path the United States is walking on today.

So, let me go back to my original question – what if Christ came tomorrow to rule the White House? Be prepared, for nothing is impossible in the hands of our Lord! Our military and political leaders are divided as the Book of Revelations is playing out, right now, on our turf. When Christ returns, it will not matter what nation you live in nor your religious affiliation. One thing is for sure, America will seek the wrath of God, and it’s cause for concern!

1 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended. 4 For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. (Romans 13:1-4)

Who ever thought we’d live long enough to see baby genocide, but it’s right here in the United States. Where are the morals of people? Do you think God will not come back to save His children from such horrific acts of crime? Murder is an offense against the sanctity of life, and this is His words about such an action:

Forecasters and philosophers alike try to predict the end of time; however, no one has the power to do this except God. Maybe, instead, they should study the Book of Revelations a little more and stop falsely misleading the public. Christians, of all colors and creed, congregate trying to protect the essence of their spirit and soul. Our churches burn down, and laws forbid us to display publicly, the religion this country was founded on many years ago. Quite frankly, Americans do not differ from the uncivilized nations abroad.

It is my opinion the Antichrists of this country shall reap no more. In the eleventh hour God will send in His reinforcements to protect His children from Satan’s wrath. Perhaps, He will start in the White House, who knows? How much longer will it take for America to recognize the onslaught of their future? Not too much longer… our Savior is coming, praise the Lord!

www.danabicksauthor.com

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The Ides of Suspicion

The ides of March are upon us and superstitions of March 15th run rampant across many nations. Thank you, Julius Caesar, for suggesting this as a bad luck day… or is it really superstitious? Senators assassinated this “dictator for life,” on the steps of the Curia of Pompey for in 44 B.C., Romans had no love for kings. Since Caesar’s death, March has a notorious history of haunting generation after generation, especially in the political arena.

The assassination of Julius Caesar

On March 15, 1917, Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate his throne just four days before the February Revolution in Russia. Also on this day in 1944, King Louis XV of France declared war on Britain. In the United States, ironically, our Pentagon Joint Chiefs of Staff appear to favor the month of March for military operations too. The US dispatched ground troops to Vietnam on March 8, 1965, starting the beginning of the Vietnam War. In fact, March 15, 1972, was considered one of the heaviest days of attacks during this conflict; the US destroyed a major North Vietnamese camp and thirty troops. The war on Iraq was launched on March 20, 2003. A covert war on Syria began March 15, 2011, while NATO began relentlessly bombing Libya just four days later. On the date of March 19, 2003, the United States launched an attack against Iraq to topple dictator Saddam Hussein from power.

Other significant non-war related incidents which occurred in March was the beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles on March 15, 1991; the Boston Massacre which began March 5, 1770, and Texas’s Fort Alamo fell to Mexican troops on March 6, 1836. Remember the stories of the Great Blizzard of 1888 which struck the northeastern United States? The storm happened on March 12th dumping over 40 inches of snow and causing four hundred deaths. As fate dictates for the ides of March, the newly elected President Ronald Reagan was shot in the chest while walking toward his limousine in Washington, D.C. It was the 30th of March in 1981.

Proverbs 3:25-36

Have no fear of sudden disaster or of the ruin that overtakes the wicked, for the Lord will be your confidence and will keep your feet from being snared.

Another oddity is some states will not hold elections on the 15th of March. But in a couple of weeks, on Super Tuesday, five states are having mid-term polls, now considered a “bad luck day” by both opponents.

The ides (division) of March – superstition or valid? I know superstitions are not based on a godly belief system. They are created by people embracing the supernatural. Only God is omniscient-all knowing. We are to be holy in our relationship with God, not falling into false beliefs and practices. Yes, it seems many nations, including the United States, has a history of horrible events which occurred in March; perhaps it’s just coincidental. Ultimately, our great Father is in control of all situations so let us pray for all our nations today.

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Cornerstone-A Designated Landmark

In the beginning, a body of water or a pile of rocks designated property lines. God drew out a line marking the earth’s plane as His cornerstone, a designated landmark when He first created the world.

As time passed, walls were nearly always built around cities in biblical days. For example, the one surrounding Babylon was 387 feet high and 87 feet thick made as a barrier of protection. God thought it was necessary and approved it because they had a right to protect their nation from evil.  So, why would countries of both the Old and New Testaments build walls in the first place? Religious beliefs, not recognized by neighboring countries, was the primary reason to fortify territories. They stacked rocks, held together by mud, to protect themselves and make their landmark.

Did you know, in 1791, George Washington took forty stones and strategically placed them as the cornerstones of Washington, DC? It began at the south corner of the square at Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia. On each stone at all four corners, the side facing the District of Columbia displayed the inscription “Jurisdiction of the United States” and a mile number.  In 2011, the vandalized cornerstones were relocated and deemed federal historical monuments. Now, their original location is designated by a chipped face on the corner of the foundation of the building where the rocks originally sat in Maryland, Virginia, and DC.

Today, we respectfully divide our private homesteads from each other’s territories by survey flags. It might be a simple parcel or an estate, but if it is yours, it is so deemed by perhaps a six-foot privacy, or a chain-link fence.

Regardless of how small your cornerstones are, stand quietly in the name of God, and thank Him for that which He has afforded you. Respect the poor’s pillars and the wealthy’s gated courtyards. The Lord’s Seventh and Tenth Commandments, “Thou shalt not steal” and “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s goods” forbids the act of wrongfully taking someone else’s property. It also condemns feelings of envy, greed, and jealousy to what others own.

Jesus has to be known as the cornerstone, a designated landmark, to Christianity. He wants us to build spiritual walls, defending our faith, even if it means our values and attitudes differ from the rest of the world. If we live within the confines of Jesus’s walls, we are morally stronger. But, when we follow the false gods of materialism, our moral and spiritual walls lie in ruins, and we manifest ourselves in prideful attitudes.

The Book of Isaiah refers explicitly to God as the “cornerstone.” One particular passage even details, in construction terminology, the firm foundation we can find in the Lord:

Isaiah 28:16–17

16 So this is what the Sovereign LORD says: “See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who relies on it will never be stricken with panic. 17 I will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the plumb line; hail will sweep away your refuge, the lie, and water will overflow your hiding place.

Amidst our current world’s turmoil, we build physical walls for protecting God’s people. It is unfortunate Satan roams our great lands with followers who seek its destruction. But, as Christians, we have to seek the cornerstone of faith – our Lord, Jesus Christ. We should not be content with broken-down walls. Let us look forward to our new world, under God’s jurisdiction, where the pearly gates will be open to all believers. Those gates will be our designated landmark!

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Africa Works: Disorder As Political Instrument -Book Review.

Politics can and has be defined in so many ways depending on the school of thought.

According to Wikitionary Politics is a methodology and activities associated with running a government, an organization, or a movement.

Some say politics is a struggle for power and a continuation of war by other means.

While to another it is the authoritative allocation of values.

And for some other people politics is a game of numbers.

Whichever way you choose to see it, one thing is common and certain about politics. “People” Politics can’t take place without people.

This is the concluding part of the book review Africa Works. If you haven’t read the first part you can do so here and now let’s get right into it. Shall we?

TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM OF DEVELOPMENT.

Chabal and Daloz paradigm describes Africa’s development in terms of what they call the instrumentalization of disorder. The major claim is that Africa is in a state of disorder due to it ineffective institutions and corruption.

The state of disorder in Africa is active and an indication of a unique African developmental path where almost everyone is a participant and after their personal interest as a result of what they will gain from the corrupt system.

In Africa corruption has eaten deep in all nooks and cranny of the society which makes it decentralised.

Everyone, everywhere tries to benefit, for example, at airports, government ministries, local government agencies, health, customs etc. Everyone want his or her share making progress to encourage corruption.

Driving from Lagos to Cotonou for instance, a traveller is likely to come across a dozen of road blocks, manned by various police forces, custom officers, local authority officials, etc. each asking for the same document and bribes.

According to the IMF corruption and disorder in Africa is an instrument making profit and as to this effect there are losers in the politics of corruption.

Emphasis on poverty alleviation strategies by aid agencies and World Bank verified the concern about deepening poverty in Africa.

Wretched images of Africa’s poverty and diseases is a regular feature on international television.

Majority of these victims are children, women, youths and aged people. To this effect Chabal and Daloz also argued the need for cultural/psychological view as an important variable in analysing Africa’s developmental issues.

Some African academics who have in recent time adopted the same method are of the opinion that when the psychological factors are taken into consideration, then it will become clear that Africa is not declining, nor is it stagnant, but it is forging ahead, according to its own path, although at a great difference with existing models of developments and that Africa will map out a unique developmental path which is in line with a specific African mind set.

This mind set has been criticised by Chabal and Daloz as defective. For example was claimed by one author,

African elites, even when they use private jets and speculate in the world’s major financial centres still remain prey to irrational beliefs long disappeared in the west.

Also the psychological defects of the Africans has been described as the inability of government to make institutions more formal and impersonal relations.

These are bad indication and a contradiction between one end, and the claim that Africa will find its own unique developmental path, and on the other hand, the characterisation of the African mind set as defective.

REFERENCE
Africa works: Disorder as political instrument.

Kedmon N. Hungwe.

Falculty of education, university of Zambia.

Africa Works: Disorder As Political Instrument – Book Review

This is perhaps one of the best books I read on African politics while I was in school. The authors takes a fresh and interesting approach to the instrumentalisation of power in Africa and discuss how it impacts African societies and economies. The book provides a wonderful framework with which to analyse African politics and a new paradigm. A must read for every scholar of African politics

Published in 1999

This book is organised around three important issues and related categories.

First, according to Patrick Chabal and Jean Pascal Daloz;

The African condition can be describe in terms of a unique culture and mind-set that force its people to follow a developmental trajectory which is different from that of other countries of the world that modernised first.

Secondly, they argue that:

Sub-Saharan Africa has the problem that cuts across the whole of Africa among which are corruption and ineffective institutions that affects all sectors of the society.

Thirdly, they observe that:

While African countries and institutions seem to be in a state of disorder and corruption, this situation is active and describe Africa’s unique developmental trail.

In this book Africa is seen as a continent full of crisis. They admitted that the problem of African development has a long history and has been of topical issues after Second World War. While there have been a lot of theories and recommendations abound, progress has been limited if not static.

Sub-Sahara is seen with the reputation of being the poorest region in the world. The region has declined in the rate at which they made progress during the mid-1970s when per capita incomes in Africa exceeded those in most of the developing world, including Asia.

According to World Bank report, a series of negative facts about sub-Sahara were highlighted such as income dropping lower than it was in the late 1960s with widespread of war, diseases, corruption, unemployment and its share of global trade has been shrinking thereby contributing only 2% of the world trade.

Chabal and Daloz argue that ineffective institution and corruption are the fundamental problem facing Africa. The definition of institutional effectiveness was given in terms of ideal type Weberian type bureaucracies.

In their assumption, they are of the opinion that the effectiveness of institutions is derived by organising their structure, purposes, and resources in order to provide rule based governance that is fair, rational and predictable.

To prevent institutions from the domination of interest groups, there should be a proper and well structured bureaucracy. One of the primary problem highlighted with African leaders and institutions is patrimonialism which is the widespread use or diverting public assets or resources for personal gain by officials who manage them.

There is no distinction between public and private spheres which also is one of the reason why African institutions are ineffective. This is due to the fact that African institutions are not neutral and it raises the question, what it means for a bureaucracy to be neutral and according to these scholars bureaucratic neutrality is not possible.

As Knott and Miller observed, institutions shape outcomes by creating incentives that leads to one decision or another. They also opined that the way institutions are arranged affects decision making processes separately from the people involved.

In their conclusion they said that as long as there are different institutional arrangements that leads to different results, then those institutional arrangement cannot be seen as neutral.

They also said that the institutional structure are the output of political choices of political actors. They also argue that it is pointless to maintain institutional or administrative neutrality rather the issue is who gets what from the political system.

According to Chabal and Daloz corruption in Africa is manifested and affects all sectors of the society. There is a distinction between a manifested form of corruption in Africa and western countries less corrupt which they called horizontal corruption.

Horizontal corruption involves the exchange of favours between economic and political elites. Corruption is seen as a unique phenomenon in Africa and a major cause of Africa’s economic grief.

The argument that the level of corruption in African states in typical has been contested by other observers, according to Bayart, Ellis Hibou, they are of the opinion that it is not that African states or their political system are more corrupt than others, as it is often believed.

There is no reason to say that Japan, China, India, Turkey, Russia etc. are less corrupt, but in Africa, the interaction between the practice of power, war, economic accumulation and illegal activities of different types constitute a particular political trajectory which can be fully appreciated only if it is addressed by looking back to see what has gone wrong and how it can be fixed and improved upon.

One of the features of this trajectory is the exploitation by dominant social groups, by dominant actors and other forms of domination such as the insertion of Africa in the international economy in the name of being dependence. Some examples include rents derived from diplomatic and military alliances, from the control of exports of oil and import of all kinds, as well as management of external financial aids.

It was suggested that a distinction be made between what may be called primary level corruption which is by the elites and secondary level corruption by the average person in Africa.

Primary level corruption is of higher level or rate than the secondary level corruption and the two are informally related. Secondary level corruption occurs from the strategies that people devised to cope with the malfunctioning of institutions and service delivery systems.

For example anytime Nigeria is faced with fuel scarcity” which is often attributed to corruption by independent oil marketers and several high level executive in Nigeria oil and gas sector which lead to shortage in fuel supply resulting to the sale of fuel in black market and in addition some of the limited petrol service attendants took bribes from motorists in exchange for preferential treatment.

This shows that corruption at the retail or distribution level is secondary because it is related to corruption at the national level which means that corruption at the top results to corruption at the bottom.

There is a reason to believe that the high level of corruption in Africa is propelled by primary level corruption and much of the corruption at the lower level in Africa is a reflection of the mechanism that people use to deal with ineffective institutions.

As observed by Narayan et al this is not peculiar to Africa but other parts of the world as well. The breakdown of institutions, especially in case of state breakdown, people take such advantages to meet their needs, doing whatever necessary to survive not minding how dangerous or the unjust nature or exploitative nature of their actions which could be through active sabotage or passive resistance.

Another issue raised by Chabal and Daloz, in Africa’s corruption and disorder is functional and defines it unique developmental path, and this position determine a new paradigm.

To be continued..

Unequivocal Confrontation

Unequivocal Confrontation cover

It’s a sad day…. our land is divided and not by a river or earthquake, but by a disaster of biblical proportions. The Bible speaks of copulation pre-dating Christ Jesus where many men adhered to their weaknesses. In today’s society, women spar in retaliation as a victim in victimless situations. On this day, a gallant man of valor rides off into the sunset to battle another day of besieging quests.

Unequivocal Confrontation Pic 1

The deep red and fiery blue states are blurred in a multitude of collages. The headline news doesn’t scratch the surface as the story unfolds; it deepens like a fiction novel of Who’s Who. A script of unwritten measure is truer than life and Americans cling to the edge of their seats as though in a movie theater.

Political paid actors are poised in their best dressed, and the filth fills the air with a stench so surreal you can smell the money sifting through the fingers. Stephen King, are you listening?? Who wrote this playwright? Is this a movie made for television or is this forecasting our social future? Our obscure hearts intently fall to the intervention. The victims are the leading actors as the corpse of recollections escape the prison of captive algorithms.

The U.S. is in the clutches of Cadillacs and Lincolns lining the walkways. As the procession starts, someone is going to get buried when parliament votes. The pagans buy lottery tickets to see who wins the Powerball. Our country is jolted, rocked by an unequivocal confrontation.

Unequivocal Confrontation Pic 2

At the end of the day, shadows stretch across flawless lawns. The rank and file filter out, one by one, kicking off their muddy shoes. Oh God, save us for we have but one life to live! Was that Benedict Arnold echoing across the mahogany and walnut of the balcony, where no one gives a darn in the first place?

The broadcasters loosen their ties and try to predict the final quarter. Its 30-love, a net serve, and it’s all tied up at fifteen. I’m confused who taught them how to count from 49 to 51. There’s no rehearsing the coward’s “you’re out” number while the victims sweat. A nation full of integrity lies in an arena with no Pledge of Allegiance, nor prayer, only a lurking evil smirking at God, our Father. Where for art thou Oh Lord, as Satan rips another mortal to shreds? God save the Queen!


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